Not all steps of IM were followed rigidly. However, we found it very useful as a planning tool in combination with the behavior change wheel and the behavior change techniques, as it provided a systematic approach to the development process and as it forced us to be explicit about our choices throughout the planning process. According to the IM protocol, the most important and modifiable determinants should be chosen for intervention (26). We identified the most important modifiable determinants within the high school environment for intervention including environmental and social factors. However, our design may have some limitations. In the context and capacity assessment schools were selected based on experience with interventions related to alcohol. We only interviewed a small number of school principals and students which may have drawn our attention to specific challenges and barriers in some contexts that may not be generalizable to all Danish high schools. However, in our testing of intervention ideas and components we chose to include high schools from both city and rural areas as well as different regions of the country to capture the heterogeneity of high schools. We interviewed both principals and students at schools that already had been working with alcohol prevention interventions and principals and students at schools that had not, to identify different possible barriers to the intervention and make our results as representative as possible.
The school is only one of the arenas of young people's everyday life - there are many arenas where young people meet and engage in heavy drinking that are not targeted by the intervention which may dilute the potential intervention effects. One specific drinking occasion is pre-partying before high school parties. This is often where the largest number of alcoholic drinks is consumed in connection with high school parties. We were unable to design feasible components targeting pre-parties, as interviews with parents showed that they are seldom present at pre-parties and generally don't feel responsible for pre-parties. Peer groups established in high schools do not cease when the students leave school at the end of the school day, go on weekend outings or holidays but continue outside the school setting. As such, it can be assumed that norms created in the school setting will be transferred to social settings outside the school.
As I help people fleeing this sort of DV for a living, I cant help but have utter contempt for the man. That should not extend to his work though, but when the title concerned has a frivolous approach to violence it starts getting complicated.Glad I finished high on life already or I'd stop playing it. It was OK, but hardly revolutionary and I would'nt play another one, even if this guys complete lack of decency and control had not been exposed.I feel sorry for the devs and team he helped assemble who will inevitably be affected by this. Its not their fault he was an Ars*****.
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In theory, researchers should be able to re-create experiments, generate the same results, and arrive at the same conclusions, thus helping to validate and strengthen the original work. However, reality does not always meet these expectations. Too often, scientific findings in biomedical research cannot be reproduced2; consequently, resources and time are wasted, and the credibility of scientific findings are put at risk. Furthermore, despite recent heightened awareness, there remains a significant need to better educate students and research trainees about the lack of reproducibility in life science research and actions that can be taken to improve it. Here, we review predominant factors affecting reproducibility and outline efforts to improve the situation.
Among the findings from scholarly efforts examining non-reproducibility is that, in a significant portion of cases, the cause could be traced to poor practices in reporting research results, and poor experimental design14,15. Poorly designed studies without a core set of experimental parameters, whose methodology is not reported clearly, are less likely to be reproducible. If a study is designed without a thorough review of existing evidence, or if the efforts to minimize biases are insufficient, reproducibility becomes more problematic.
All of the raw data that underlies any published conclusions should be readily available to fellow researchers and reviewers of the published article. Depositing the raw data in a publicly available database would reduce the likelihood that researchers would select only those results that support a prevailing attitude or confirms previous work. Such sharing would accelerate scientific discoveries, and enable scientists to interact and collaborate at a meaningful level.
Experimental reproducibility could be considerably improved if researchers were trained how to properly structure experiments and perform statistical analyses of results. By strictly adhering to a set of best practices in statistical methodology and experimental design, researchers could boost the validity and reproducibility of their work.
If scientists pre-register proposed scientific studies (including the approach) prior to initiation of the study, it would allow careful scrutiny of all parts of the research process and would discourage the suppression of negative results.
It is important that research methodology is thoroughly described to help improve reproducibility. Researchers should clearly report key experimental parameters, such as whether experiments were blinded, which standards and instruments were used, how many replicates were made, how the results were interpreted, how the statistical analysis was performed, how the randomization was done, and what criteria were used to include or exclude any data.
Furthermore, ATCC offers online cell line authentication training in partnership with Global Biological Standards Institute, NIH (R25GM116155-03), and Susan G. Komen (SPP160007), which focuses on the best practices for receiving, managing, authenticating, culturing, and preserving cell cultures. To further support cell authentication and reproducibility in the life sciences, ATCC also provides STR profiling and mycoplasma detection testing as services to researchers.
To help improve rigor, reproducibility, and transparency in scientific research, the NIH issued a notice in 2015 that informed scientists of revised grant application instructions that focused on improving experimental design, authenticating biological and chemical resources, analyzing and interpreting results, and accurately reporting research findings. These efforts have led to the adoption of similar guidelines by journals across numerous scientific disciplines and has resulted in cell line authentication becoming a prerequisite for publication.
This initiative was designed to provide evidence of reproducibility in cancer research and to identify possible factors that may affect reproducibility. Here, selected results from high-profile articles are independently replicated by unbiased third parties to evaluate if data could be consistently reproduced. For each evaluated study, a registered report delineating the experimental workflow is reviewed and published before experimentation is initiated; after data collection and analysis, the results are published as a replication study.
Many peer-reviewed journals have updated their reporting requirements to help improve the reproducibility of published results. The Nature Research journals, for example, have implemented new editorial policies that help ensure the availability of data, key research materials, computer codes and algorithms, and experimental protocols to other scientists. Researchers must now complete an editorial policy checklist to ensure compliance with these policies before their manuscript can be considered for review and publication.
Accuracy and reproducibility are essential for fostering robust and credible research and for promoting scientific advancement. There are predominant factors that have contributed to the lack of reproducibility in life science research. This issue has come to light in recent years and a number of guidelines and recommendations on achieving reproducibility in the life sciences have emerged, but the practical implementation of these practices may be challenging. It is essential that the scientific community are objective when designing experiments, take responsibility for depicting their results accurately, and thoroughly and precisely describe all methodologies used. Further, funders, publishers, and policy-makers should continue to raise awareness about the lack of reproducibility and use their position to promote better research practices throughout the life sciences. By taking action and seeking opportunities for improvement, researchers and key stakeholders can help improve research practices and the credibility of scientific data.
Justin Roiland is working on a new first-person shooter called High On Life. The vibrant new experience is a sci-fi adventure where players control an average high-schooler. Their life is turned upside down when they're assigned the role of a bounty hunter. 781b155fdc